Pavel Fernandez, El tercer attentado
At about the same time, two huge books on femicide appeared in France, Femicide. This contributes greatly to the discussion of this terrifying phenomenon by providing a wealth of background information. This is partly specialized, but it can help to better map and explain the phenomenon, discuss it with more knowledge, take well-supported action and shape policy. Both books offer historical depth, international scope, and many angles. And many concrete examples of violence against women, but also of their resilience and resistance. Together, these works make up a file of approximately 1,400 pages.
The star of La Découverte publishing house, “Féminicides, Une histoire nationale” is hard to handle due to its size, thickness and weight, and the cross between a paperback and a coffee table book. But as the subtitle makes clear, the scope is very ambitious: a global history of femicide! Editor, historian, and feminist activist Christelle Taroud has compiled texts for about 140 individuals, including world-famous names and many more. In addition to the articles, the book also contains an anthology of literature, media or art on the issues discussed, with beautiful illustrative material. There is an impressive list of “collaborators” (actually individuals whose text or illustrations are included) but no page reference. So I read that Umberto Eco appears in the book, but not anywhere anywhere.
From witch hunts to serial killers
The seven chapters deal with basic themes. First of all, witch hunts, which are a shocking part of European history, but still go on in countries like Ghana, India or Papua New Guinea. Then violence against women in the context of slavery and colonialism. Then the sexual exploitation of women, accompanied by kidnapping and murder, and serial murders, such as the crime of “Jack the Ripper” in London or Samuel Little in several American states. Since 1900, there have been more than 500 known serial killers primarily for women at work in the United States. And in recent decades, the series of femicides that took place in Mexico shocked the world, and the name of the place, Ciudad Juárez, became internationally infamous.
A chapter on masculinity, a view of the sexes that puts men first and subordinates women to them, and thus rejects or fights against feminism, explains how this is done. Masculinity has a dual tendency: women who are independent, make demands, do not submit to the realm of men, their husbands are vilified or subjected to violence, while women who breastfeed are revered for patriarchal thinking. Women are witches or reflections of the Holy Mary, servants of man (men). Masculinity can become very violent, think of Anders Breivik, the Norwegian mass murderer, who accused feminists of undermining the masculinity of Western civilization.
The complex relationship between genocide and femicide is the topic of Chapter Five. You can see femicide as a form of genocide: a part of the human race is seen as being extirpated on the basis of a physical characteristic. But the matter is more complicated, in wars male opponents are often killed with the same degree of severity, while women are taken as spoils of war, or kept alive as maids, often sexually engaged. Genocide is broader than the killing of a class of people, usually racially specific. After all, it is also the disappearance of an ethnic group and its culture. In this way, femicide on a larger scale can also be seen as the suppression of a (unwanted) feminine culture, I believe. But there also appears to be a link between femicide and political violence within states. Again a lot of material to think about in this chapter.
The sixth chapter deals with standards of beauty, body distortion, and the destruction of identities. This is about the international dominance of White West beauty standards, and alternatives to them, such as the ‘Beautiful Fat Brown’ in the Philippines. And about makeup, fashion, sexual mutilation, eating disorders … but also family names, such as the tradition that the name of the man is passed on to the sons and not to the name of the woman.
the huge vemicids He, despite his culture and 924 pages, is aimed at a fairly wide audience, even if there is a lot of science in it. I think it will be interesting for activists, activists, policy makers, educators, educators, and anyone interested in women’s rights. It is more scientifically rigorous in terms of content and writing technique Les Archives du Feminicide, a 460-page paperback, with few illustrations, published by Hermann. It is a worthy successor to the version released in 2019 by the same publisher and partly by the same compilers Tuesday une femme. If feminine. history etIt is a highly regarded book containing about twenty articles from very different angles.
The Armenian Genocide and the killing of women
new job collectors, du archives for killing womenLydie Bodiou and Fréderic Chauvaud follow the same formula as in the previous work: separate articles, 17 in number, with different angles and themes. The period is wide: from femicide in ancient Rome through ancient French archival texts and Shakespeare to cinema, contemporary art, and a modern court case.
The ‘archives’ the title refers to should not be viewed too narrowly, as they relate to something more than documents (texts but also visual and physical objects) kept in all sorts of places. These are archives in the sense of Michel Foucault, that is, all the elements and testimonies of speech from the past. The authors are all scholars, except for one, a women’s rights group. The approach is interdisciplinary, but with an emphasis on history. Writers and writers belong to the fields of history (from antiquity to today), art history, psychology, sociology, literature …
The central question behind this book is: What historical sources do we have about femicide and what do they tell us? In which archive do we find the material? Archives in the literal sense (collections of documents or ancient objects in specific museums, libraries and archive buildings) and in the broader Foucault sense. Locations are sometimes unpredictable. For example, the archives of “American Women’s Hospitals”. The Armenian Genocide began in 1915 in the Ottoman Empire. Aid organizations soon became active in the United States to assist the victims. The archives of the American Women’s Hospitals in New York still hold nearly 700 research reports by American doctors who examined Armenian girls and women at that time. They contain medical findings of abuse and abuse, but sometimes also contain the patient’s account of what happened to them.
Forced marriage, forced pregnancy, rape, venereal disease
Researchers Jocelyn Chabot and Silvia Kasparian found in the documents 680 cases of girls who survived the genocide and “contacted” with Turks or Kurds. The girls’ age, at the time of the survey in 1919, four years after the outbreak of the genocide, was 13 to 24 years old. Many of them were between ten and twelve when their persecution began. The average age was 16 and a half years.
In this group, researchers found:
- 247 cases of forced marriage
- 111 pregnant girls who have given birth to one or more children
- 141 girls were not forced into marriage but were raped
- 92 girls whose doctors suspected of raping them.
- Several cases of venereal disease.
There is no developed idea of ’post-traumatic stress’ in the minds of clinicians. For example, they describe the case of a battered 22-year-old woman with severe stress as “dementia.”
continuity of violence
American doctors do not see firsthand the outcome of the genocide of women, because they are talking to the survivors. But there is a line of first horror – a young girl watching young Armenian children thrown into the water to drown, or finding her father’s severed head in a sack in the kitchen – by beating, lashing, imprisonment, kidnapping, rape, sale as slavery, forced marriage and pregnancy depending on the state of dementia Or nervousness or apathy determined by doctors.
This illustrates an important point in femicide research emphasized by the two researchers: It is a whole group of psychological and physical abuse that culminates in the death of the victim, but the earlier stages are the period before the killing, i.e. preparation or part of it. So the atrocities must be seen as a whole.
Disfigured female body
In discussions of femicide, Mexico is a reference point for horror. The countless women murdered in Ciudad Juárez became a household name. Article in Archives du FemicideWritten by Marilyn Laballos, it revolves around Mexican artist Pavel Fernandez, whose mother is murdered. In 2015, he showcased a series of artwork titled Miradas heridas (Wounded Appearances) with six images of femicide. The last of these was related to his mother. When he visited her in the morgue, he was not allowed to take pictures, but instead drew sketches of her. That image has since been removed from his work, and that’s what I understand: It seems unbearable to live with it.
The most shocking, irreplaceable and unbearable image in the series is the depiction of a bare young woman with her arms and legs cut or severed. It is an illustration of the unbridled aggression that can be assumed by misogyny, culminating in the physical dismemberment of the female body. I didn’t want to include that picture here, I’ll limit myself to another picture from the series. The images in the book discussed here are small and of low quality, so I copied the work at the top of this article from their website, courtesy of the artist, who now lives in Berlin: